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In 1981, fueled by the previous year 1980's release of Namco's colorful and appealing Pac-Man, the audience for arcade video games in 1981 became much wider. Pac-Man was the year's highest-grossing video game, the best-selling home system was Nintendo's Game & Watch for the second year in a row, and the best-selling home video game was the Atari VCS port of Space Invaders for the second year in a row.

Financial performance[]

In 1981, the video game industry was in the middle of the arcade golden age. Sales and revenue hit new peaks for the industry, in large part fuelled by Pac-Man introducing a wider demographic (particularly female players) to video games.[1]

The following table lists the annual sales and revenue generated by the electronic games industry this year, including video games and electro‑mechanical games. See sections below for breakdown of revenue estimates.

Industry Products Market Unit sales Annual revenue (est.) Ref
Nominal Inflation
Electronic games United States 47,359,000 $10,968,819,000 $37,000,000,000
Japan 9,800,000+ $3,543,300,000 $12,000,000,000
Arcade games Worldwide 553,000+ $15,500,000,000 $52,000,000,000 [2]
Arcade Arcade games United States 550,000 $8,200,000,000 $27,000,000,000 [3][4][5]
Japan $3,400,000,000 $11,000,000,000 [6][7][8]
Arcade video games United Kingdom 9,700+ $400,000,000 $1,300,000,000 [9]
Spain $204,000,000 $680,000,000 [10]
Australia $182,000,000 $610,000,000 [11]
Philippines 3,000 [12]
Electro‑mechanical games Worldwide 63,700+ $1,500,000,000 $5,000,000,000
Arcade Electro‑mechanical games United States 63,700 $1,200,000,000 $4,000,000,000 [5][3][2]
Japan $300,000,000 $1,000,000,000 [13]
Video games Worldwide 57,098,300 $17,197,119,000 $58,000,000,000
Arcade Arcade video games United States 486,300 $7,000,000,000 $23,000,000,000 [2][14]
Japan $3,100,000,000 $10,000,000,000 [13]
United Kingdom 9,700+ $400,000,000 $1,300,000,000 [9]
Spain $204,000,000 $680,000,000 [10]
Australia $182,000,000 $600,000,000 [11]
Philippines 3,000 [12]
Worldwide 499,000+ $14,000,000,000 $47,000,000,000 [2]
Console Video game consoles United States 6,202,000 $1,463,000,000 $4,900,000,000 [15][4]
United Kingdom $52,000,000 $170,000,000 [16]
Worldwide 6,502,000+ $1,533,000,000 $5,100,000,000
Cartridge consoles United States 4,200,000+ $1,455,000,000 $4,900,000,000 [4][17]
Japan 300,000 $18,000,000 $60,000,000 [18][19]
Dedicated consoles United States $8,000,000 $27,000,000 [4]
Console game cartridges United States 35,000,000 $1,000,000,000 $3,400,000,000 [14][4]
United Kingdom $40,000,000 $130,000,000 [16]
Console market United States 41,202,000 $2,463,000,000 $8,300,000,000
Canada $55,000,000 $180,000,000 [20]
Europe $200,000,000 $670,000,000 [21]
United Kingdom $92,000,000 $310,000,000 [16]
West Germany $88,000,000 $290,000,000 [11]
Worldwide 41,502,000+ $2,718,000,000 $9,100,000,000
Handheld Handheld games United States 4,107,000 $276,000,000 $920,000,000 [15][4]
Japan 9,500,000 $115,300,000 $390,000,000 [18][22]
Worldwide 13,607,000+ $431,300,000 $1,400,000,000
Handheld LCD games Japan 5,000,000 [18]
United Kingdom $40,000,000 $130,000,000 [16]
Computer Computer games United States 1,500,000 $29,819,000 $100,000,000 [14][15]
Video games United States 47,295,300 $9,768,819,000 $33,000,000,000
Japan 9,800,000+ $3,233,300,000 $11,000,000,000
United Kingdom $432,000,000 $1,400,000,000
Electronic games Worldwide 57,162,000+ $20,000,000,000 $67,000,000,000 [2]

Highest-grossing video games[]

The following titles were the highest-grossing video games worldwide in 1981. See sections below for breakdown of revenue estimates.

Rank Title Company Worldwide revenue (est.) Genre Platform(s)
Nominal Inflation
1 Pac-Man Namco $3,000,000,000 $10,100,000,000 Maze Multi-platform
2 Donkey Kong Nintendo $1,600,000,000 $5,400,000,000 Platformer Arcade
3 Space Invaders Taito $1,100,000,000 $3,700,000,000 Shmup Multi-platform
4 Defender Williams $620,000,000 $2,200,000,000 Shmup Arcade
Asteroids Atari $620,000,000 $2,200,000,000 Shmup Multi-platform
6 Janputer Sanritsu $600,000,000 $2,000,000,000 Mahjong Arcade
7 Pro Golf Data East $400,000,000 $1,300,000,000 Sports
8 Centipede Atari $250,000,000 $840,000,000 Shmup
9 Frogger Konami / Sega $230,000,000 $770,000,000 Action
Gorf Midway $230,000,000 $770,000,000 Shmup

Highest-grossing arcade games[]

The following titles were the highest-grossing arcade games worldwide in 1981. See sub-sections below for breakdown of revenue estimates.

Rank Title Company Worldwide revenue (est.) Revenue breakdown (est.) Genre
Nominal Inflation Japan USA
1 Pac-Man Namco $3,000,000,000[23] $10,100,000,000 $300,000,000 $1,400,000,000 Maze
2 Donkey Kong Nintendo $1,600,000,000 $5,400,000,000 $1,000,000,000 $630,000,000 Platformer
3 Space Invaders Taito $1,000,000,000[24] $3,400,000,000 $600,000,000 Shmup
4 Defender Williams $620,000,000 $2,200,000,000 $12,000,000 $610,000,000
5 Asteroids Atari $600,000,000 $2,000,000,000 $600,000,000 Shmup
Janputer Sanritsu $600,000,000 $2,000,000,000 $600,000,000 Mahjong
7 Pro Golf Data East $400,000,000 $1,300,000,000 $400,000,000 Sports
8 Centipede Atari $250,000,000 $840,000,000 $250,000,000 Shmup
9 Frogger Konami / Sega $230,000,000 $770,000,000 $24,000,000 $210,000,000 Action
Gorf Midway $230,000,000 $770,000,000 $230,000,000 Shmup
11 Phoenix Hiraoka/TPN[25] $200,000,000 $700,000,000 $200,000,000 Shmup
12 Scramble Konami $180,000,000 $600,000,000 $16,000,000 $160,000,000
13 Asteroids Deluxe Atari $160,000,000 $540,000,000 $160,000,000 Shmup
Berzerk Stern $160,000,000 $540,000,000 $160,000,000 Maze
15 Galaga Namco $150,000,000 $520,000,000 $100,000,000 $50,000,000 Shmup
16 Crazy Climber Nichibutsu $120,000,000 $400,000,000 $64,000,000 $51,000,000 Platformer
Qix Taito $120,000,000 $400,000,000 $110,000,000 $7,000,000 Puzzle
19 Tempest Atari $110,000,000 $370,000,000 $110,000,000 Shmup
Wizard of Wor Midway $110,000,000 $370,000,000 $110,000,000 Maze
20 Super Cobra Konami $95,000,000 $320,000,000 $95,000,000 Shmup

The following table lists the year's best-selling and highest-grossing arcade games in various markets.

Market Top game Company Cabinet sales Gross revenue (est.) Genre
Annual Cume Nominal Inflation Ref
United States Pac-Man Namco 80,000[26] 100,000[26] $1,400,000,000 $4,700,000,000 Maze
Japan Donkey Kong Nintendo 65,000[27] 65,000 $1,000,000,000 $3,400,000,000 [13] Platformer
United Kingdom Space Invaders Taito 85,000[28] $300,000,000 $1,000,000,000 [29] Shmup
Sydney Space Invaders Taito 3,000+[30] $7,000,000 $23,000,000 [31]

Japan[]

In Japan, the following titles were the highest-grossing arcade games in 1981. The list includes video games (VG) and electro-mechanical games (EM games).[32][33]

Rank Title[32][33] Company Points[33] Gross revenue (est.) Genre Type
Nominal[n 1] Inflation
1 Donkey Kong Nintendo 258 $1,000,000,000 $3,400,000,000 Platformer VG
2 Janputer Sanritsu 160 $600,000,000 $2,000,000,000 Mahjong
3 Pro Golf Data East 100 $400,000,000 $1,300,000,000 Sports
4 Pac-Man Namco 75 $300,000,000 $1,010,000,000 Maze
5 Qix Taito 27 $110,000,000 $370,000,000 Puzzle
6 Galaga Namco 26 $100,000,000 $340,000,000 Shmup
7 Bosconian Namco 17 $68,000,000 $230,000,000
8 Crazy Climber Nichibutsu 16 $64,000,000 $210,000,000 Platformer
9 Crush Roller Kural 15 $60,000,000 $200,000,000 Maze
10 Grand Champion Taito 12 $48,000,000 $160,000,000 Racing
11 River Patrol Orca 7 $28,000,000 $94,000,000 Action VG
Yama Nobori Game Komaya 7 $28,000,000 $94,000,000 Action EM
Oshaberi Ōmu[n 2] Kato[n 3] 7 $28,000,000 $94,000,000 Prize
14 Frogger Konami / Sega 6 $24,000,000 $80,000,000 Action VG
KO Punch Sega 6 $24,000,000 $80,000,000 Boxing
Pitch In Namco 6 $24,000,000 $80,000,000 Sports EM
Skill Diga Sega 6 $24,000,000 $80,000,000 Prize
18 Tele-Jan Data East 5 $20,000,000 $67,000,000 Mahjong VG
19 Scramble Konami 4 $16,000,000 $54,000,000 Shmup VG
Jump Bug Hoei 4 $16,000,000 $54,000,000 Action
Count-Mahjong Nichibutsu 4 $16,000,000 $54,000,000 Mahjong
Space Panic Universal 4 $16,000,000 $54,000,000 Platformer
Space Invaders Bally 4 $16,000,000 $54,000,000 Pinball EM
The Driver Kasco 4 $16,000,000 $54,000,000 Driving
Kero Kero Pakkun[n 4] Komaya 4 $16,000,000 $54,000,000 Action
26 Defender Taito 3 $12,000,000 $40,000,000 Shmup VG
Turbo Sega 3 $12,000,000 $40,000,000 Racing
Galaxian Namco 3 $12,000,000 $40,000,000 Shmup
Zaxxon Sega 3 $12,000,000 $40,000,000
Black Hole Gottlieb 3 $12,000,000 $40,000,000 Pinball EM
Mogura Taiji TOGO 3 $12,000,000 $40,000,000 Mole
32 Frisky Tom Nichibutsu 2 $8,000,000 $27,000,000 Action VG
Video Hustler Konami 2 $8,000,000 $27,000,000 Sports
Rally-X Namco 2 $8,000,000 $27,000,000 Driving
Super Golf Logitec 2 $8,000,000 $27,000,000 Sports
Hangly-Man Nittoh 2 $8,000,000 $27,000,000 Maze
The Karate Takara[n 5] 2 $8,000,000 $27,000,000 Strength EM
Embryon Bally 2 $8,000,000 $27,000,000 Pinball
Super Golf Trainer Kurita Giken 2 $8,000,000 $27,000,000 Sports
40 Fitter Taito 1 $4,000,000 $13,000,000 Strategy VG
Fantasy SNK 1 $4,000,000 $13,000,000 Action
Monaco GP Sega 1 $4,000,000 $13,000,000 Racing
Rock Climber Taito 1 $4,000,000 $13,000,000 Platformer
Gomoku Narabe Renju Nichibutsu 1 $4,000,000 $13,000,000 Strategy
Panther Irem 1 $4,000,000 $13,000,000 Shmup
N-Sub Sega 1 $4,000,000 $13,000,000
Shoot Away Namco 1 $4,000,000 $13,000,000 FPS EM
Clay Champ Namco 1 $4,000,000 $13,000,000
Batting Chance Namco 1 $4,000,000 $13,000,000 Sports
Yakyū Game[n 6] Namco 1 $4,000,000 $13,000,000
Knock Down Namco 1 $4,000,000 $13,000,000 Boxing
Baseball-2 Komaya 1 $4,000,000 $13,000,000 Sports
Udezumō[n 7] Komaya 1 $4,000,000 $13,000,000
Boxing Komaya 1 $4,000,000 $13,000,000 Boxing
Crane Sega 1 $4,000,000 $13,000,000 Crane
Total 849 $3,400,000,000[6] $11,000,000,000
Video games 772 $3,100,000,000 $10,000,000,000
Electro-mechanical 77 $300,000,000 $1,000,000,000

United States[]

The year's highest-grossing video game was Pac-Man, earning three times the box office revenue of the highest-grossing film Star Wars (1977) in five years.[35] In the United States, the following titles were the highest-grossing arcade games in 1981.[36][37][38] See tables below for breakdown of revenue estimates.

Rank Title Company Gross revenue (est.) Revenue breakdown (est.) Genre
Nominal Inflation Unit sales Coin drop
1 Pac-Man [36][37][38] Namco $1,400,000,000 $4,700,000,000 $200,000,000 $1,200,000,000 Maze
2 Defender [36][37] Williams $610,000,000 $2,000,000,000 $110,000,000 $500,000,000 Shmup
3 Asteroids [36][37] Atari $600,000,000 $2,000,000,000 $600,000,000
4 Space Invaders Taito $600,000,000 $2,000,000,000 $600,000,000 Shmup
5 Donkey Kong Nintendo $420,000,000 $1,400,000,000 $180,000,000 $240,000,000 Platformer
6 Centipede Atari $250,000,000 $840,000,000 $60,000,000 $190,000,000 Shmup
7 Gorf Midway $230,000,000 $770,000,000 $47,000,000 $190,000,000
8 Crazy Kong Nintendo/Falcon $210,000,000 $700,000,000 $88,000,000 $120,000,000 Platformer
Frogger Konami / Sega $210,000,000 $700,000,000 $68,000,000 $140,000,000 Action
10 Phoenix TPN/Hiraoka[25] $200,000,000 $670,000,000 $26,059,166 $170,000,000 Shmup
11 Asteroids Deluxe Atari $170,000,000 $570,000,000 $40,000,000 $130,000,000
12 Berzerk Stern $160,000,000 $540,000,000 $12,000,000 $150,000,000 Maze
13 Scramble Konami $160,000,000 $540,000,000 $30,000,000 $130,000,000 Shmup
14 Wizard of Wor Midway $110,000,000 $370,000,000 $31,000,000 $84,000,000 Shmup
15 Tempest Atari $100,000,000 $370,000,000 $46,000,000 $54,000,000 Shmup
16 Super Cobra Konami $95,000,000 $320,000,000 $25,000,000 $70,000,000 Shmup
17 Vanguard Tose / SNK $63,000,000 $210,000,000 $14,504,630  $48,000,000 Shmup
18 Space Invaders Bally $60,000,000 $200,000,000 $60,000,000 Pinball
19 Crazy Climber Nichibutsu $51,000,000 $170,000,000 $15,000,000 $36,000,000 Platformer
20 Galaga Namco $50,000,000 $170,000,000 $25,000,000 $25,000,000 Shmup
21 Pleiades Tehkan $45,000,000 $150,000,000 $9,526,346 $35,000,000 Shmup
22 Eagle Nichibutsu $29,000,000 $97,000,000 $4,548,062 $24,000,000 Shmup
23 Star Castle Cinematron $28,000,000 $94,000,000 $5,500,000 $22,000,000
24 Astro Blaster Sega $25,000,000 $84,000,000 $5,000,000 $20,000,000
25 Omega Race Midway $21,000,000 $70,000,000 $6,000,000 $15,000,000
26 Route-16 Sun Denshi $20,010,000 $67,000,000 $3,011,555 $17,000,000
27 Armor Attack Cinematron $20,000,000 $67,000,000 $20,000,000
28 Warlords Atari $19,300,000 $65,000,000 $4,300,000 $15,000,000
29 Venture Exidy $19,000,000 $64,000,000 $6,000,000 $13,000,000
30 Red Baron Atari $14,000,000 $47,000,000 $4,000,000 $10,000,000
31 Turtles (600) Konami $12,000,000 $40,000,000 $6,000,000 $6,000,000 Driving
The End Konami $12,000,000 $40,000,000 $3,000,000 $9,000,000 Shmup
33 Pulsar Sega $9,000,000 $64,000,000 $2,000,000 $7,000,000 Maze
34 Moon War Stern / Konami $8,000,000 $25,000,000 $2,500,000 $5,000,000 Shmup
35 Space Fury Sega $7,000,000 $23,000,000 $2,000,000 $5,000,000 Shmup
Space Odyssey Sega $7,000,000 $23,000,000 $2,000,000 $5,000,000
Qix Taito $7,000,000 $23,000,000 $2,000,000 $5,000,000 Puzzle
38 Moon Shuttle Nichibutsu $6,000,000 $20,000,000 $2,000,000 $4,000,000 Shmup
Warp & Warp Namco $6,000,000 $20,000,000 $2,000,000 $4,000,000 Shooter
40 Strategy X Konami $2,800,000 $9,000,000 $1,400,000 $1,400,000 Shooter
41 Jungler Konami $2,000,000 $7,000,000 $1,000,000 $1,000,000 Maze

Cabinet sales[]

The following titles were the year's best-selling arcade video games in the United States in terms of cabinet sales.[39]

Rank Title Company Cabinet sales[40] Sales revenue (est.) Genre
Gross Ref
1 Pac-Man Namco 80,000[26] $200,000,000 [41] Maze
2 Defender Williams 50,000[42] $110,000,000 [42] Shmup
3 Donkey Kong Nintendo 41,000[43] $180,000,000 [44] Platformer
4 Frogger Konami / Sega 30,000[45][46] $68,000,000 [45] Action
5 Centipede Atari 30,000[47][48] $60,000,000 [47] Shmup
6 Crazy Kong Nintendo / Falcon 20,000[49] $88,000,000 [44][43] Platformer
7 Gorf Midway 20,000[50] $47,000,000 [51] Shmup
8 Tempest Atari 20,000[47] $46,000,000 [47]
9 Asteroids Deluxe Atari 19,147[47] $40,000,000 [47]
10 Phoenix TPN / Hiraoka / Taito[25] 18,614[52] $26,059,166 [52]
11 Scramble Konami 15,136[53] $30,000,000 [54]
12 Wizard of Wor Midway 15,000[50] $31,000,000 [55] Maze
13 Super Cobra Konami 12,337[53] $25,000,000 [54] Shmup
14 Vanguard Tose / SNK 10,360[52] $14,504,630  [52]
15 Galaga Namco 10,000[56] $25,000,000 [57]
16 Pleiades Tehkan 6,805[52] $9,526,346 [52]
17 Berzerk Stern 5,780+[53][58] $12,000,000 [53] Maze
18 Crazy Climber Nichibutsu / Taito 5,000+[59][3] $15,000,000 [60] Platformer
19 Eagle (Moon Cresta) Nichibutsu 3,249[52] $4,548,062 [52] Shmup
20 Omega Race Midway 3,000+[61] $6,000,000 [62] Shmup
Venture Exidy 3,000+[63] $6,000,000 [64] Maze
22 Star Castle Cinematronics 3,000+[39][59] $5,500,000 [65] Shmup
23 Astro Blaster Sega 3,000+[59] $5,000,000 [66]
24 Warlords Atari 2,267[47] $4,300,000 [47] Block
25 Route-16 Sun Denshi 2,151[52] $3,011,555 [52] Driving
26 Turtles (600) Konami 2,014[53] $6,000,000 [60]
27 Red Baron Atari 2,004[47] $4,000,000 [47] Shmup
28 The End Konami 1,299+[53] $3,000,000 [53] Shmup
29 Moon War Konami / Stern 1,270[53] $2,500,000 [53]
30 Pulsar Sega 1,000+[59] $2,000,000 [64] Maze
Space Fury Sega 1,000+[67] $2,000,000 [64] Shmup
Space Odyssey Sega 1,000+[68] $2,000,000 [64]
Moon Shuttle Nichibutsu / Taito 1,000+[67] $2,000,000 [64]
Qix Taito 1,000+[63] $2,000,000 [64] Puzzle
Warp & Warp Namco 1,000+[63] $2,000,000 [64] Shooter
36 Strategy X Konami 692[53] $1,400,000 [64] Shooter
37 Jungler Konami 500[53] $1,000,000 [64] Maze

Coin drop earnings[]

The following titles were the year's highest-earning arcade games in terms of US coin drop earnings.

Title Company Release Cabinets[40] Coin drop earnings (est.)
Earnings per unit Annual earnings
Pac-Man Namco 1980-10[69] 100,000[26] $15,000[70] $1,200,000,000[35]
Asteroids Atari 1979-11[47] 56,565[47] $10,000[70] $600,000,000
Space Invaders Taito 1978-10[71] 72,000[72] $8,300 $600,000,000[73]
Defender Williams 1981-03[74] 50,000[42] $10,000[70] $500,000,000
Donkey Kong Nintendo 1981-07[75] 41,000[43] $5,900 $240,000,000
Gorf Midway 1981-02[76] 20,000[50] $9,300 $190,000,000
Centipede Atari 1981-06[47] 30,000[47][48] $6,200 $190,000,000
Phoenix TPN / Hiraoka / Taito[25] 1981-01[77] 18,614[52] $9,200 $170,000,000
Berzerk Stern 1980-11[78] 15,780[78] $9,300 $150,000,000
Frogger Konami / Sega 1981-09[79] 30,000[45][46] $4,800[70] $140,000,000
Scramble Konami 1981-03[53] 15,136[53] $8,700 $130,000,000
Asteroids Deluxe Atari 1981-04[47] 19,147[47] $6,700 $130,000,000
Crazy Kong Nintendo / Falcon 1981-07[43] 20,000[49] $5,900 $120,000,000
Wizard of Wor Midway 1981-06[77] 15,000[50] $5,600 $84,000,000
Super Cobra Konami 1981-06[53] 12,337[53] $5,700 $70,000,000
Space Invaders Bally 1980-04[80] 11,400[80] $5,300 $60,000,000
Tempest Atari 1981-10[47] 20,000[47] $2,700 $54,000,000
Vanguard Tose / SNK 1981-08[52] 10,360[52] $4,600 $48,000,000
Pleiades Tehkan 1981-06[52] 6,805[52] $5,200 $35,000,000
Crazy Climber Nichibutsu 1980-12[81] 3,000+[59] $9,200 $28,000,000
Eagle (Moon Cresta) Nichibutsu 1980-08[52] 3,249[52] $7,300[5] $24,000,000
Galaga Namco 1981-10[82] 10,000[56] $2,500 $25,000,000[57]
Star Castle Cinematronics 1980-10[83] 3,000+[39][59] $7,300[5] $22,000,000
Astro Blaster Sega 1981-04[77] 3,000+[59] $6,700 $20,000,000
Armor Attack Cinematronics 1981-05[77] 3,000+[39] $6,500 $20,000,000
Route-16 Sun Denshi 1981-03[52] 2,151[52] $8,000 $17,000,000
Warlords Atari 1981-04[47] 2,267[47] $6,400 $15,000,000
Omega Race Midway 1981-08[77] 3,000+[61] $5,000 $15,000,000
Venture Exidy 1981-08[77] 3,000+[63] $4,400 $13,000,000
Red Baron Atari 1981-06[47] 2,004[47] $5,200 $10,000,000
The End Konami 1981-02[53] 1,299+[53] $6,700[5] $9,000,000
Crazy Climber Taito 1981-03[84] 1,000+[59] $7,600 $8,000,000
Pulsar Sega 1981-04[77] 1,000+[59] $6,600 $7,000,000
Turtles (600) Konami 1981-10[53] 2,014[53] $3,000[60] $6,000,000[60]
Space Fury Sega 1981-06[85] 1,000+[67] $5,300 $5,000,000
Space Odyssey Sega 1981-07[77] 1,000+[68] $4,600 $5,000,000
Qix Taito 1981-09[86] 1,000+[63] $4,600 $5,000,000
Moon War Konami / Stern 1981-06[53] 1,270[53] $4,200[5] $5,000,000
Warp & Warp Namco 1981-08[87] 1,000+[63] $4,000 $4,000,000
Moon Shuttle Nichibutsu / Taito 1981-08[77] 1,000+[67] $3,900 $4,000,000
Strategy X Konami 1981-10[53] 692[53] $2,000[64] $1,400,000[53][64]
Jungler Konami 1981-12[53] 500[53] $2,000[64] $1,000,000[53][64]

Play Meter provided the following average coin drop earnings per arcade cabinet.

Title Company Release Earnings Weekly earnings[5] Annual
H1
[59][5]
July
[39][5]
8/6
[88]
8/18
[68]
9/9
[67][61]
9/22
[61]
11/15
[63]
12/1
[89]
12/15
[90]
1/1
[91]
Pac-Man Namco 1980-10[69] $5,400 $850 $206 $215 $245 $234 $254 $238 $215 $220 $15,000[70]
Defender Williams 1981-03[74] $3,800 $840 $213 $219 $267 $265 $282 $254 $233 $218 $10,000[70]
Asteroids Atari 1979-11[47] $4,800 $770 $185 $175 $209 $195 $205 $193 $171 $171 $10,000[70]
Gorf Midway 1981-02[76] $4,200 $900 $198 $192 $211 $198 $211 $186 $169 $171 $9,300
Berzerk Stern 1980-11[78] $4,600 $760 $153 $140 $193 $192 $205 $186 $169 $171 $9,300
Phoenix Hiraoka/TPN[25] 1981-01[77] $4,400 $750 $170 $169 $203 $196 $205 $201 $169 $171 $9,200
Crazy Climber Nichibutsu 1980-12[81] $4,600 $680 $140 $140 $214 $186 $205 $186 $169 $171 $9,200
Taito 1981-03[84] $3,100 $650 $140 $140 $193 $186 $205 $186 $169 $171 $7,600
Scramble Konami 1981-03[53] $3,600 $830 $192 $182 $208 $200 $223 $186 $169 $171 $8,700
Route-16 Sun Denshi 1981-03[52] $3,600 $560 $140 $140 $193 $186 $205 $186 $169 $171 $8,000
Astro Blaster Sega 1981-04[77] $2,100 $700 $140 $140 $193 $209 $205 $186 $169 $171 $6,700
Asteroids Deluxe Atari 1981-04[47] $2,200 $650 $140 $140 $193 $186 $205 $186 $169 $171 $6,700
Pulsar Sega 1981-04[77] $2,200 $560 $140 $140 $193 $186 $205 $186 $169 $171 $6,600
Armor Attack Cinematronics 1981-05[77] $1,700 $790 $183 $155 $193 $190 $205 $186 $169 $171 $6,500
Warlords Atari 1981-04[47] $1,800 $710 $140 $140 $193 $186 $205 $186 $169 $171 $6,400
Centipede Atari 1981-06[47] $560 $560 $189 $218 $243 $259 $271 $252 $169 $221 $6,200
Donkey Kong Nintendo 1981-07[75] $560 $140 $140 $193 $288 $300 $306 $283 $288 $6,000
Super Cobra Konami 1981-06[53] $560 $560 $140 $209 $235 $236 $254 $216 $193 $171 $5,700
Wizard of Wor Midway 1981-06[77] $560 $560 $239 $172 $212 $211 $241 $192 $169 $175 $5,600
Space Fury Sega 1981-06[85] $560 $560 $140 $140 $250 $224 $205 $189 $206 $171 $5,300
Space Invaders Bally 1980-04[80] $1,700 $400 $66 $66 $129 $186 $205 $186 $169 $99 $5,300
Red Baron Atari 1981-06[47] $560 $690 $140 $158 $193 $209 $205 $186 $169 $171 $5,200
Pleiades Tehkan 1981-06[52] $560 $560 $140 $173 $217 $191 $213 $194 $169 $171 $5,200
Omega Race Midway 1981-08[77] $140 $195 $270 $242 $257 $264 $229 $240 $5,000
Qix Taito 1981-09[86] $193 $186 $320 $317 $306 $287 $4,600
Vanguard Tose / SNK 1981-08[52] $140 $140 $193 $250 $250 $278 $230 $191 $4,600
Space Odyssey Sega 1981-07[77] $560 $140 $196 $194 $200 $205 $186 $169 $171 $4,600
Venture Exidy 1981-08[77] $140 $223 $256 $196 $239 $198 $170 $171 $4,400
Warp & Warp Namco 1981-08[87] $140 $140 $193 $186 $225 $205 $169 $171 $4,000
Moon Shuttle Nichibutsu 1981-08[77] $140 $140 $219 $186 $205 $186 $169 $171 $3,900
Frogger Konami / Sega 1981-09[79] $193 $186 $205 $286 $262 $264 $3,900
Tempest Atari 1981-10[47] $205 $186 $260 $266 $2,700
Make Trax ADK 1981-10[92] $205 $186 $169 $250 $2,400
Galaga Namco 1981-10[82] $205 $186 $169 $238 $2,400
Solar Quest Cinematron 1981-10[93] $205 $186 $169 $203 $2,300
Turtles (600) Konami 1981-10[53] $205 $186 $169 $194 $2,300
Arcade video games $3,600 $610 $140 $140 $193 $186 $205 $186 $169 $171 $7,300[5]

United Kingdom[]

Rank Title Company Cabinet sales Gross revenue (est.) Genre
Annual Cume Nominal Inflation Ref
1 Space Invaders Taito 85,000[28] $300,000,000 $1,000,000,000 [29] Shmup
2 Defender Williams 5,100[94] 5,100 $30,000,000 $101,000,000 [95]
3 Invader's Revenge Zenitone 2,500[96] 2,500 $17,000,000 $57,000,000 [29]
4 Astro Fighter Data East 4,000[97] $15,000,000 $50,000,000 [29] Shmup
Sheriff Nintendo 4,000[97] $15,000,000 $50,000,000 [29] Shooter
6 Scramble Konami 2,000+[94] 2,000+ $12,000,000 $40,000,000 [95] Shmup
7 Space Intruders Subelectro 2,500[98] $10,000,000 $34,000,000 [29]
8 Space Firebird Nintendo 200+[97] $1,000,000 $3,000,000
9 Frogger Konami / Sega 100+[94] 100+ $400,000+ $1,300,000+ [95] Action
Arcade video games 9,700+ 110,000+[99] $400,000,000 $1,700,000,000

Best-selling home systems[]

Rank System(s) Manufacturer(s) Type Generation Sales Ref
1 Game & Watch Nintendo Handheld 4-bit 9,500,000 [100]
2 Atari VCS (Atari 2600) Atari Console Second 4,000,000 [101]
3 Intellivision Mattel Console Second 1,000,000+ [102]
4 ZX81 Sinclair Research Computer 8-bit 500,000 [103][104]
5 Epoch Cassette Vision Epoch Console Second 300,000 [18]
6 Atari 400 / 800 Atari Computer 8-bit 300,000 [105]
7 TRS-80 Tandy Corporation Computer 8-bit 250,000 [105]
8 Apple II Apple Computer 8-bit 210,000
9 Commodore PET Commodore Computer 8-bit 40,000
Annual sales
Video game consoles 6,202,000 [15]
Personal computers 1,400,000 [105]

Best-selling home video games[]

The following titles were the best-selling home video games in 1981.

Rank Title Platform Company Sales Revenue (est. Genre Ref
Nominal Inflation
1 Space Invaders Multi-platform Taito 2,966,137 $95,100,000 $320,000,000 Shmup
2 Parachute Game & Watch Nintendo 1,200,000 $56,000,000 $190,000,000 Action [100]
Octopus Game & Watch Nintendo 1,200,000 $56,000,000 $190,000,000
Popeye Game & Watch Nintendo 1,200,000 $56,000,000 $190,000,000
Mickey Mouse Game & Watch Nintendo 1,200,000 $56,000,000 $190,000,000
Fire Game & Watch Nintendo 1,200,000 $56,000,000 $190,000,000
7 Chef Game & Watch Nintendo 1,000,000 $47,000,000 $160,000,000
8 Manhole Game & Watch Nintendo 1,000,000 $45,000,000 $150,000,000
Helmet (Headache) Game & Watch Nintendo 1,000,000 $45,000,000 $150,000,000
10 Astrosmash Intellivision Mattel 1,000,000 $30,000,000 $101,000,000 Shmup [106][107]

United States[]

In the United States, the following titles were the year's best-selling home video games, excluding dedicated handheld games. See tables below for breakdown of sales and revenue estimates.

Rank Title Platform Company Sales
(est.)
Revenue (est.) Genre Ref
Nominal Inflation
1 Space Invaders Multi-platform Taito 2,966,137 $95,100,000 $320,000,000
Space Invaders Atari VCS Taito 2,964,137 $95,000,000 $320,000,000 Shmup [108][107]
Super Invader Apple II M. Hata 2,000 $60,000 $200,000
2 Astrosmash Intellivision Mattel 1,000,000 $30,000,000 $101,000,000 Shmup [106][107]
3 Las Vegas Poker & Blackjack Intellivision Mattel 1,000,000 Card [109][102]
4 Major League Baseball Intellivision Mattel 985,700 $30,000,000 $101,000,000 Sports [110][107]
5 Warlords Atari VCS Atari 936,861 $30,000,000 $101,000,000 Block [108][107]
6 Space Armada Intellivision Mattel 931,100 $28,000,000 $94,000,000 Shmup [111][107]
7 NFL Football Intellivision Mattel 880,200 $26,000,000 $87,000,000 Sports [110][107]
8 Space Battle Intellivision Mattel 872,000 $26,000,000 $87,000,000 Shmup [111][107]
9 Breakout Atari VCS Atari 838,635 $19,000,000 $64,000,000 Block [108][107]
10 Night Driver Atari VCS Atari 779,547 $21,000,000 $70,000,000 Racing

Console games[]

The following titles were the year's best-selling console games in the US.

Rank Title Platform Company Sales
(est.)
Revenue (est.) Genre Ref
Nominal Inflation
1 Space Invaders Atari VCS Taito 2,964,137 $95,000,000 $320,000,000 Shmup [108][107]
2 Astrosmash Intellivision Mattel 1,000,000 $30,000,000 $101,000,000 Shmup [106][107]
3 Las Vegas Poker & Blackjack Intellivision Mattel 1,000,000 Card [109][102]
4 Major League Baseball Intellivision Mattel 985,700 $30,000,000 $101,000,000 Sports [110][107]
5 Warlords Atari VCS Atari 936,861 $30,000,000 $101,000,000 Block [108][107]
6 Space Armada Intellivision Mattel 931,100 $28,000,000 $94,000,000 Shmup [111][107]
7 NFL Football Intellivision Mattel 880,200 $26,000,000 $87,000,000 Sports [110][107]
8 Space Battle Intellivision Mattel 872,000 $26,000,000 $87,000,000 Shmup [111][107]
9 Breakout Atari VCS Atari 838,635 $19,000,000 $64,000,000 Block [108][107]
10 Night Driver Atari VCS Atari 779,547 $21,000,000 $70,000,000 Racing
11 Kaboom! Atari VCS Activision 600,000 $14,000,000 $47,000,000 Action [112][107]
12 Triple Action Intellivision Mattel 503,400 $12,000,000 $40,000,000 Action [113][107]
13 Atari Football Atari VCS Atari 500,000 $6,000,000 $20,000,000 Sports [108][107]
14 Armor Battle Intellivision Mattel 471,600 $14,000,000 $47,000,000 Shooter [113][107]
15 Auto Racing Intellivision Mattel 465,200 $14,000,000 $47,000,000 Racing [114][115]
16 Sea Battle Intellivision Mattel 429,200 $17,000,000 $57,000,000 Strategy [113][107]
17 NBA Basketball Intellivision Mattel 418,100 $13,000,000 $44,000,000 Sports [108][107]
18 Asteroids Atari VCS Atari 407,090 $15,000,000 $50,000,000 Shmup [108][107]
19 Adventure Atari VCS Atari 400,000 $10,000,000 $34,000,000 Adventure [116][117]
20 PBA Bowling Intellivision Mattel 383,100 $9,000,000 $30,000,000 Sports [108][107]
21 Snafu Intellivision Mattel 378,100 $11,000,000 $37,000,000 Snake [113][107]
22 Boxing Intellivision Mattel 375,700 $11,000,000 $37,000,000 Boxing [108][107]

Computer games[]

The following titles were the year's best-selling computer games in the US. Points represent Apple II software sales on the Softalk charts.[118]

Rank Title Platform Developer Points
[118]
Sales (est.)
[n 8][119][120]
Revenue (est.)
[n 9][121][122]
Ref
1 Pac-Man Computers Namco 84.33 53,000 $2,000,000
Scarfman (Pac-Man) TRS-80 Namco / Cornsoft 15,000 $500,000 [120]
Ghost Hunter (Pac-Man) Atari 8-bit Namco / Arcade Plus 15,000 $500,000
Snoggle (Pac-Man) Apple II Jun Wada 319.23 10,000 $300,000
Snack Attack (Pac-Man) Apple II Namco / Datamost 126.01 6,000 $200,000 [120][123]
Pac Attack (Pac-Man) TRS-80 Namco / Computerware 5,000 $200,000 [120]
Apple Puck Man (Pac-Man) Apple II Jun Wada 38.10 2,000 $100,000
2 Raster Blaster Apple II BudgeCo 577.43 25,000 $800,000 [120][124]
3 Galaxian Apple II Namco 748.95 21,000 $630,000
Alien Rain (Apple Galaxian) Apple II Tony Suzuki 406.18 20,000 $600,000
Star Cruiser (Galaxian) Apple II Nasir Gebelli 25.60 1,000 $30,000
4 Gorgon Apple II Nasir Gebelli 397.67 20,000 $600,000 [120][125]
5 Space Eggs (Moon Cresta) Apple II Nasir / Nichibutsu 384.57 20,000 $600,000
6 Flight Simulator Apple II SubLogic 361.30 10,000 $300,000 [120]
7 Wizard and the Princess Apple II On-Line Systems 300.60 10,000 $300,000
8 Apple Panic (Space Panic) Apple II Universal 280.79 10,000 $300,000 [120][126]
9 Olympic Decathlon Apple II Microsoft 264.85 10,000 $300,000
10 Pool 1.5 Apple II Innovative Design 224.79 10,000 $300,000 [120]
11 Mystery House Apple II On-Line Systems 93.18 10,000 $300,000 [127]
12 Zork Computers Infocom 146.84 9,517 $300,000 [128]
13 Sneakers Apple II Sirius Software 181.27 8,000 $200,000
14 Temple of Apshai Computers Automated 162.74 8,000 $200,000 [129][130]
15 Ultima Apple II California Pacific 164.18 7,000 $200,000
16 Cranston Manor Apple II On-Line Systems 163.70 7,000 $200,000
17 ABM Apple II MUSE 152.30 7,000 $200,000
18 Warp Factor Apple II Strategic Simulations 231.01 7,000 $200,000
19 Robot War Apple II MUSE 146.82 6,000 $200,000
20 Sargon II Apple II Hayden Software 146.4 6,000 $200,000
21 Castle Wolfenstein Apple II MUSE 142.87 6,000 $200,000
22 Phantoms 5 Apple II Nasir Gebelli 114.85 5,000 $200,000
23 Gobbler Apple II On-Line Systems 111.16 5,000 $200,000
24 Mission: Asteroid Apple II On-Line Systems 109.13 5,000 $200,000
25 Wizardry Apple II Sir-Tech 104.71 5,000 $200,000 [120][126]
26 Galactic Chase Atari 8-bit Spectrum Computers 5,000 $200,000 [120]
27 Expediter II Apple II On-Line Systems 88.45 4,000 $100,000
28 Epoch Apple II Sirius Software 82.41 4,000 $100,000
29 Pegasus II (Scramble) Apple II Konami / On-Line 79.69 4,000 $100,000 [131]
30 Akalabeth: World of Doom Apple II California Pacific 12.90 3,000 $100,000 [132][133]
31 Pulsar II Apple II Nasir Gebelli 78.21 3,000 $90,000
32 Savage Island Apple II Adventure 71.45 3,000 $90,000
33 Asteroid Field Apple II Cavalier Software 70.93 3,000 $90,000
34 Bug Attack Apple II Cavalier Software 69.52 3,000 $90,000
35 Threshold Apple II On-Line Systems 68.73 3,000 $90,000
36 Sabotage Apple II On-Line Systems 63.20 3,000 $90,000
37 Missile Defense Apple II On-Line Systems 58.44 3,000 $90,000
38 Voyage of the Valkyrie Computers Advanced Operating 3,000 $90,000 [120]
39 Zork II Computers Infocom 2,800 $80,000 [128]
40 Cyber Strike Apple II Sirius Software 55.84 2,000 $60,000
41 Hi-Res Football Apple II On-Line Systems 54.74 2,000 $60,000
42 Dogfight Apple II Microlab 53.49 2,000 $60,000
43 Hellfire Warrior Apple II Automated 53.12 2,000 $60,000
44 Beer Run Apple II Sirius Software 51.18 2,000 $60,000
45 The Prisoner Apple II Edu-Ware Services 47.40 2,000 $60,000
46 Autobahn Apple II Nasir Gebelli 44.62 2,000 $60,000
47 Planetoids (Asteroids) Apple II Adventure 44.30 2,000 $60,000
48 Adventure Apple II Microsoft 43.94 2,000 $60,000
49 Computer Baseball Apple II Strategic Simulations 42.71 2,000 $60,000
50 Space Warrior Apple II Broderbund Software 42.22 2,000 $60,000
51 Alien Typhoon Apple II Tony Suzuki 42.09 2,000 $60,000
52 Super Invader Apple II M. Hata / Taito 36.71 2,000 $60,000
53 Creature Venture Apple II Highlands Computer 33.69 1,000 $30,000
54 Odyssey Apple II Synergistic Software 29.8 1,000 $30,000
55 Bill Budge's Space Album Apple II California Pacific 25.65 1,000 $30,000
56 Dragon Fire Apple II Level 10 Software 25.59 1,000 $30,000
57 Oo Topos Apple II Sentient Software 25.59 1,000 $30,000
58 Space Raiders Apple II United Software 25.38 1,000 $30,000
59 Oribitron Apple II Sirius Software 17.78 1,000 $30,000
60 Star Thief Apple II Cavalier Computing 17.03 1,000 $30,000
61 Hi-Res Cribbage Apple II On-Line Systems 14.61 1,000 $30,000
62 Gamma Goblins Apple II Sirius Software 14.32 1,000 $30,000
63 3-Pack Apple II Automated 12.89 600 $20,000
64 Lords of Karma Apple II Avalon Hill 12.77 600 $20,000
65 Planet Miners Apple II Avalon Hill 12.29 500 $20,000
66 Falcons Apple II Picadilly Software 12.24 500 $20,000
67 Star Warrior Apple II Automated 12.17 500 $20,000
68 Space Quarks Apple II Broderbund Software 12.02 500 $20,000
69 Reversal Apple II Hayden Software 11.80 500 $20,000
70 DOS Boss Apple II Beagle Brothers 6.88 300 $9,000

United Kingdom[]

In the United Kingdom, the year's best-selling Intellivision game cartridge was Soccer.[134]

Notes[]

  1. 849 points[34] equivalent to $3.4 billion = $4 million per point (est.)
  2. おしゃべりオーム, "Chatting Ohm"
  3. カトウ製作所 Kato Seisakusho
  4. ケロケロパックン
  5. 宝化学 Takara Kagaku, "Takara Chemical"
  6. 野球ゲーム Yakyū Gēmu, "Baseball Game"
  7. 腕ずもう, "Arm Wrestling"
  8. 45 units per point (est.)
    • 660.12 points equivalent to 25,000 units (Raster Blaster up until June 1982)
    • 576.61 points equivalent to 25,000 units (Snack Attack up until June 1982)
    • 577.24 points equivalent to 24,000 units (Wizardry up until June 1982)
    • 529.87 points equivalent to 23,000 units (Gorgon up until June 1982)
    • 483.66 points equivalent to 15,000 units (Apple Panic up until June 1982)
    • 197.83 points equivalent to 20,000 units (Ultima up until June 1982)
    • 81.42 points equivalent to 3,600 units (Taxman up until June 1982)
  9. Average price: $30

References[]

  1. Boasberg, Louis (May 1, 1982). "Hats off to ladies and Pac-Man!". Play Meter 8 (9): 14. https://archive.org/details/play-meter-volume-8-number-9-may-1st-1982/Play%20Meter%20-%20Volume%208%2C%20Number%209%20-%20May%201st%201982/page/n7.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Edward S. Roschild (Jun 21, 1982), "Videodisks, microcomputers form integrated systems", InfoWorld (InfoWorld Media Group) 4 (24): p. 16, ISSN 0199-6649, https://books.google.com/books?id=XjAEAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA16, retrieved February 25, 2012, "The figure of more than $7 billion for last year's video arcade game revenues is a conservative one. Some industry analysts estimate that the real amount spent on video games was as much as five times higher."
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 "The State of the Industry: Operating population, game sales, and revenues—all hit record levels". Play Meter 7 (21): 16-20. November 15, 1981. https://archive.org/details/play-meter-volume-7-number-21-november-15th-1981/Play%20Meter%20-%20Volume%207%2C%20Number%2021%20-%20November%2015th%201981/page/16.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 Video Game Sales: 1972-1999. Gaming Alexandria (June 7, 2021).
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 "Play Meter survey results: Video still #1, other types register gains". Play Meter 7 (21): 8-14. November 15, 1981. https://archive.org/details/play-meter-volume-7-number-21-november-15th-1981/Play%20Meter%20-%20Volume%207%2C%20Number%2021%20-%20November%2015th%201981/page/8.
  6. 6.0 6.1 "Star invaders: Space invaders turn on Japanese to delights in inter-galactic war". The Financial Post (Canada): p. S8. 6 October 1979. https://books.google.com/books?id=4GI_AAAAIBAJ&pg=PA52.
  7. Watkins, Ralph (1984). A Competitive Assessment of the U.S. Video Game Industry: Report on Investigation No. 332-160 Under Section 332(b) of the Tariff Act of 1930. U.S. International Trade Commission. pp. 30-1. https://books.google.com/books?id=-38XdacYD6QC&pg=PA30.
  8. Koyama, Yusuke (2023-06-02). History of the Japanese Video Game Industry. Springer Nature. pp. 21-2, 62, 65. ISBN 978-981-99-1342-8. https://books.google.com/books?id=uITCEAAAQBAJ&pg=PA65.
  9. 9.0 9.1 See United Kingdom section
  10. 10.0 10.1 Morales, Eddie (Autumn 1982). "The tangle web of Spain's gaming machine industry". Coin Slot Location (United Kingdom) 2 (4): 6-21 (17). https://archive.org/details/coin-slot-location-volume-2-issue-4-autumn-1982/Coin%20Slot%20Location%20-%20Volume%202%20Issue%204%20-%20Autumn%201982/page/n22.
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 "Games That People Play". Time: 50-2. January 18, 1982. https://vgpavilion.com/mags/1982/01/time/games-that-people-play/.
  12. 12.0 12.1 "Video nightmare: games may harm children, some officials say". Park City Daily News: p. 3-C. 6 May 1983. https://books.google.com/books?id=EjUqAAAAIBAJ&pg=PA26&article_id=5092,1590036.
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 See Japan section
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1985. U.S. Government Printing Office. December 1984. pp. 229. https://books.google.com/books?id=iXFqAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA229.
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 Watkins, Ralph (1984). A Competitive Assessment of the U.S. Video Game Industry: Report on Investigation No. 332-160 Under Section 332(b) of the Tariff Act of 1930. U.S. International Trade Commission. pp. 48-9. https://books.google.com/books?id=-38XdacYD6QC&pg=PA48.
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 "Market size and market shares". Video Games: A Report on the Supply of Video Games in the UK. United Kingdom: Monopolies and Mergers Commission (MMC), H.M. Stationery Office. April 1995. pp. 66 to 68. ISBN 978-0-10-127812-6.
  17. "Billboard Debuts Vid Games Chart". Billboard: 3. 1982-09-11. https://www.worldradiohistory.com/Archive-All-Music/Billboard/80s/1982/BB-1982-09-11.pdf#page=3.
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 18.3 昔(1970年代)のテレビゲームは何台売れた? (How many old (1970s) video games sold?) (Japanese). Classic Videogame Station Odyssey (CVS Odyssey) (2014-01-09). Archived from the original on 2023-11-02.
  19. Second generation of video games
  20. "Children's panel rates dazzling video games". The Montreal Gazette: p. C. 20 November 1982. https://books.google.com/books?id=YYkxAAAAIBAJ&pg=PA25&article_id=1774,3974612.
  21. Perry, T.; Truxal, C.; Wallich, P. (December 1982). "Consumer electronics: Video games: The electronic big bang". IEEE Spectrum 19 (12): 20–21. ISSN 0018-9235. Archived from the original on 2014-11-07. https://web.archive.org/web/20141107045947/2600connection.com/library/magazines/spectrum/spectrum_dec82.pdf#page=7.
  22. Focus Japan. Japan External Trade Organization. 1983. p. 5. https://books.google.com/books?id=-HsTG096xEkC. "Notable were the large number of electronic items using LSIs, such as the handheld LSI games, which had recorded sales of ¥24 billion (US$98.8 million) in 1980, ¥28 billion (US$115.3 million) in 1981 and ¥125 billion (US$514.7 million ) in 1982."
  23. Kline, Stephen; Dyer-Witheford, Nick; Peuter, Greig De (2003). Digital Play: The Interaction of Technology, Culture, and Marketing. McGill–Queen's University Press. p. 96. ISBN 978-0-7735-2591-7. https://books.google.com/books?id=gw5V10iLEsUC&pg=PA96. "In 1981 "250 million games of Pac-Man were being played on over 100,000 Pac-Man machines in arcades every week ..." (...) The game produced one billion dollars in revenue in 1980 alone"
  24. "Headlines and heroes just don't mix anymore". St. Petersburg Times (United States): p. 3C. 12 July 1982. https://books.google.com/books?id=BUxSAAAAIBAJ&pg=PA17&article_id=6666,3491679. "In a country that spent a billion dollars more last year on Space Invaders"
  25. 25.0 25.1 25.2 25.3 25.4 Akagi, Masumi (13 October 2006) (in ja). アーケードTVゲームリスト国内•海外編(1971-2005). Japan: Amusement News Agency. pp. 41-2, 109, 114. ISBN 978-4990251215. https://archive.org/details/ArcadeGameList1971-2005/page/n43.
  26. 26.0 26.1 26.2 26.3 "Chomp! Chomp! This Video Game Gobbles Market: Pac-Man". The Pittsburgh Press (United States): p. H. 21 March 1982. https://books.google.com/books?id=FNgcAAAAIBAJ&pg=PA59&article_id=6291,1995071.
  27. Brian Ashcraft ; with Jean Snow. ; forewords by Kevin Williams; Crecente, Brian (2008). Arcade Mania: The Turbo-charged World of Japan's Game Centers (1st ed. ed.). Tokyo: Kodansha International. ISBN 4-7700-3078-9. http://books.google.co.uk/books?ei=DH03T87uGYbp8QO-rtHMAg&id=wX8kAQAAIAAJ. Retrieved 12 February 2012. "Jumpman hopped over barrels, climbed ladders, and jumped from suspended platform to suspended platform as he tried to rescue a damsel from his pissed-off pet gorilla. The game was a smash, and sixty-five thousand cabinets were sold in Japan, propping up the then-struggling Nintendo and laying the groundwork for Nintendo and Donkey Kong creator Shigeru Miyamoto to dominate gaming throughout the 1980s and beyond."
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